Are you travelling abroad? It is likely that you will encounter health risksnot normally experienced in the U.K. If you have insufficient immunity for a specific endemic disease in the country where you areplanning to visit increases your risk to harmful diseases.
At the same time, it would be an opportune time to review your immunization history to ensure you are protected from common diseases i.e. polio, tuberculosis, diphtheria. If you already have a date for your trip, then schedule a visit to our doctor/travel clinic at least a month before.
A month is necessary for your body to respond and build up immunity after the vaccine. Moreover, many vaccines are given over a period of weeks on separate occasions for complete cover. Factoring immunisation together with any visa requirements should be something you can schedule into your preparation plans.
We provide the wide range of vaccines appropriate for regions throughout the globe and administer them based on your medical history, and your previous vaccinations and/or the itinerary plans of your travel. If you are going abroad for your job i.e. an industry with a high-risk factor for contracting certain diseases, we can help. Affordable vaccine packages are also available.
It is important to visit the doctor at least a couple of months before your trip as updates and changes do happen periodically. Vaccine requirement depends on your length of stay, any pre-existing health conditions, and your health generally. Our doctor will ensure that you are adequately covered and receive the necessary up-to-date vaccines and medicines for your protection.
We can help you get the correct recommended vaccines atan affordable price. Our vaccines are consistently updated depending on the current requirements.
You can feel confident that you are in safe hands. We work side by side with the health authorities to make sure we provide you with all the vaccines you need for safe travel.
Our clinic is registered and certified to administer Yellow Fever vaccines and will provide you with the necessary documentation for entry into certain countries that insist on it.
If you following the correct advice and appropriate health cover to remote areas, your visit will be an uneventful and enjoyable one.
Hepatitis A is less severe than hepatitis B or C these are caused by different viruses and are more serious diseases. However you can be immunised against hepatitis A.Hepatitis A is less common where sanitation is generally good, such as the UK and Western Europe. Most cases of hepatitis A in the UK are diagnosed in people returning home after travelling to a country where sanitation is poor and the risk of hepatitis Ais higher. The virus is easily passed from person to person if personal hygiene is poor. (i.e. Infected people do not wash their hands after going to the toilet and then go on to prepare food.)
The highest-risk areas include: the Indian subcontinent (in particular, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), Africa, parts of the Far East (except Japan), South and Central America and the Middle East.
Apart from travellers, certain groups of people are at increased risk for hepatitis A. Intravenous drug users, male homosexuals, haemophiliacs needing blood clotting factors may have increased risk factors. Also people with liver problems are likely to get hepatitis A and it is more severe.
Hepatitis A immunisation is recommended before travelling to certain countries where hepatitis A is common, ideally 4-6 weeks before your date of travel.
If you catch hepatitis A, it is not usually serious but it may ruin your holiday or business trip.
Typherix®, Typhim Vi® is a combination typhoid vaccine with hepatitis A, for adults and for adolescents aged 15 years plus. If boosted within 6-12 months of the first dose, it gives immunity from Hepatitis A for ten years, and Typhoid for only three years.
Immunisation: important for parents with infants and children.
Hepatitis AThree doses in total - (Day 0,6-18 months,20-25 years). Ifthe second dose is late, 20-year protection can still be relied upon.
Hepatitis B is an infection that also affects the liver. If you are infected the virus is present in body fluids. i.e. blood, saliva, semen and vaginal fluids.
In some people the virus remains in the body long-term and become carriers. Some carriers even with no symptoms can still passthe virus on to other people. However 1 in 4 carriers eventually develop serious liver disease. This disease can cause liver failure and cirrhosis, even cancer if left untreated.
It is most common in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia.
Immunisation: important for parents with infants and children.
Hepatitis BBooster at 5 years or when antibody levels fall. Fast course: Day 0, then 1 month, 2 months, 12 months. Accelerated course: Day 0, 7, 21, then 12 months.
Unfortunately there is no vaccine available at present to protect against hepatitis C.
Hepatitis C affects and damages your liver and is carried in the bloodstream. However, the virus can also affect other parts of the body, including the digestive system, the immune system and the brain.
There are six types of the hepatitis C virus. It is possible to be infected with more than one type of hepatitis C at the same time.
The virus can live outside the body, for up to four days. It is important to reduce the small risk of contracting the virus by avoiding shared toothbrushes, razors and other items that may be contaminated with infected blood and re-used equipment used for tattooing, body piercing, etc.
The most common symptoms of chronic hepatitis C are extreme tiredness, poor concentration, memory problems, and muscle and joint aches and pains.
A small number of people who develop cirrhosis as a result of chronic infection go on to develop liver cancer.
You should be vaccinated against hepatitis A and/or hepatitis B if you have never been infected before. It is also recommended you get vaccinated against influenza and pneumococcus. Our GP or travel nurse will be able to give you more information about these.
Yellow fever is a severe infection that spreads through mosquito bites. It is high-risk in specific regions such as South and Central America, parts of Africa, and the Caribbean.
Yellow Fever is transmitted by bites from infected mosquitoes during daylight hours. (It is a different type from the mosquito that causes malaria which tends to bite from dusk until dawn.) Although vaccination does offer high protection against yellow fever, taking additional steps to avoid being bitten is also important and strongly advised. (Insect repellent body sprays.)
Pregnant women should not be immunised with this vaccine. It is sometimes given after the sixth month if there is a high risk of contracting it; also if you are breast-feeding and at high risk it may be given.
If you are immune-suppressed - i.e. people with HIV, on high-dose long-term steroids or receiving chemotherapy, etc. should not receive this vaccine.
Children under 9 months old should not receive the yellow fever vaccine. (Babies aged 6-9 months may occasionally receive the vaccine if the risk of yellow fever during travel is unavoidable.)
If you are ill with a fever you should ideally postpone the injection until you are better.
This vaccine contains small amounts of egg so a severe reaction to egg, although very rare, should not be given. (It does not mean disliking eggs or an upset stomach.)
If you have had a severe reaction to the yellow fever vaccine in the past this vaccine is contra indicated.
Those over 60 years old who have not previously been vaccinated against yellow fever have an increased risk to side-effects.
If you have a thymus disorder this vaccine in contra indicated.
Tetanus is a bacterial infection, which is now quite rare.
If you are up to date with your immunisations then you will not need it. However, if you travel to areas where medical attention may not be available then a dose of vaccine may be advisable even if you have had five previous injections. I.e. if it has been more than 10 years since your last injection. This is a precautionary measure. Our doctor or practice nurse will advise you on this. The tetanus vaccine is safe if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. You should not have another injection of the vaccine if it previously caused a severe reaction.
DTaP. (Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis). These horrible diseases are all now rare in the UK and have saved innumerable lives. So it is very important that your baby is protected if you plan taking him/her with you abroad to areas of high risk.
DTaP is a combination vaccine, and now includes IPV (polio), Hib, Hep B or the hexavalent vaccine. It is usually known as the 6-in-1 vaccine:
1, 2 and 3: DTaP: Diphtheria (D), Tetanus (T) and acellular Pertussis (aP) (whooping cough).
4 IPV: Inactivated polio vaccine'. Polio is short for poliomyelitis.
5 Hib: Haemophilus influenza type b.
6 Hep B:Hepatitis B.
(The DTaP/IPV(polio) vaccine is offered to all pregnant women between 28 and 38 weeks of pregnancy. The aim is to boost short-term immunity to their newborn babies who normally cannot be vaccinated until 2 months of age.)
Anyone who has been routinelyvaccinated as a child should not need any more. However, boosters may be given if this is not the case. If not, then the vaccine is given as Td/IPV(polio), i.e. Tetanus and Polio only.
Rabies is a disease that is usually preventable. Animals can transfer rabiesto humans, if infected,through a bite, scratch or by licking an open wound. Bats can also pose a problem: you may be bitten while asleep and not notice. You are especially at risk in areas with rabies. Rabies targets the human’s brain and nervous system.
You should plan for this vaccination at least two months before you intend to travel to be fully covered. If that is not possible, having part of the vaccination treatment is still worthwhile. The injections - up to three - are given several weeks apart.
If you are visiting remote areas it is unlikely access to the right treatment is quick enough as medical facilities are few and far between and they rarely have human rabies-specific immunoglobulin (HRIG) which gives rapid, short-term protection for anyone who has been bitten and not vaccinated.
Japanese encephalitis is a viral infection common in rural areas in the Pacific Islands, Southeast Asia, and the Far East. It is a disease of the brain andisspread by a bite from an infected mosquito. The mosquito breeds in rice paddies and is active between dusk and dawn. The risk is highest for long stay travellers to rural areas, particularly as it is difficult to avoid mosquito bites. Sprays and nets should be used to avoid being bitten.
(Contra indicated for pregnant women.)Air travel is not allowed for five days after the appearance of the last spot.
(Contra indicated for pregnant women.) People with a weakened immune system may benefit from the vaccine. The vaccine is licensed for people over 50 however you may not be eligible for the vaccine on the NHS. We can do this for you at the clinic.
Cholera vaccine is not needed by most travellers but advisable if travelling to a high-risk area. In pregnant and/or breast-feeding women the safety of this vaccine is not documented. Therefore, if you are pregnant or breast-feeding, the vaccine should only be considered if the risks are high in areas known to have Cholera.
-There are now vaccines available for dengue fever and some going through development but they are not available worldwide. In Brazil and Mexico, there is an approved vaccine.
Mainly occurs in West and Equatorial Africa. The first Ebolaoutbreakwas in 1974, and again in 1994 inthe Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Further outbreaks then confirmed in Central Africa. The largest recorded outbreak was in March 2014 in West Africawhich was first confirmed in Guinea. Currently there are reports in the media recently that a vaccine has become available. There are concerns that the new vaccine - which requires two injections 56 days apart - may be difficult to administer in a region where the population is highly mobile, and insecurity is widespread.The WHO says this vaccine is proven safe and effective against Ebola, but that more testing is still needed for it to be licensed. Therefore it is unavailable in this country and limited availability in affected regions. Health workers should seek advice before travel from their relative NGOs and/or Embassy, High Commission or Consulate.
It is important to tell the doctor ifyou are pregnant or breast-feeding. It is okay for pregnant women to receive the flu jab.
Please also inform the doctor if you have a condition that makes you bleed more i.e. haemophilia or are taking other medications, including across the counter i.e. herbal/ complementary medicines.
There is a risk throughout the year. The highest in north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Mizoram, district of Amini in Arunachal Pradesh, north and south Chhattisgarh, Orissa and the city of Mangalore. In central Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh the risk is not high enough to warrant anti-malarial tablets for most travellers.
Check with our doctor or nurse at the clinic for recommended anti-malarial tablets.
Malaria chemoprophylaxis is not prescribable on FP10. Chloroquine and proguanil can be bought over the counter.
Mefloquine, doxycycline, and Malarone® require a private prescription.
People should not to buy anti-malarial medications abroad or purchased over the internet as they are more than likely to be fake.
Insect repellent sprays and mosquito nets can be bought over the counter from chemists easily and should definitely be used.
Please see Malaria; World Health Organization, 2014 (updated 2016) on the internet for additional information.
Contra indicated for pregnant women.) You should also not become pregnant for one month after having a rubella (MMR) immunisation. However, it is safe to have if you are breast-feeding. You should also not have the vaccine if you are having chemotherapy or are immuno-suppressed.
If you are allergic to neomycin or gelatine (which are part of the vaccine) it is contra indicated. There is an adaptation available which does not contain gelatine or if prefer not to have gelatine.
You can be immunised against various strains of the meningococcus if you chose to be. It is not a requirement for India however it is advisable if the area is over populated. At least two weeks before you travel. There are very few people who cannot be given meningococcal vaccines. It is also safe to have the vaccine if you are breastfeeding. The risk for meningococcal meningitis is low for tourists but higher for people living or working in endemic or outbreak areas.
Generally, booster doses of vaccine are not required. However, in people without a spleen or with certain chronic kidney diseases, antibody levelsfall, gradually over time. These people should therefore have a booster dose every five years.
Polio or poliomyelitis is a viral disease beginning in the gut, which then goes to the nervous system. Thanks to polio vaccination, it is not globally rare, but there are still existing high-risk areas including Nigeria, India, and Pakistan.Polio. You may be advised to have a booster if you have not had a booster dose of vaccine within the previous 10 years and plan to travel to certain countries. This is particularly important for health workers who intend to work in high risk areas.
Typhoid is endemic to areas of poor sanitation - i.e. Africa, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central and Southern America and the Caribbean.
Keeping away from contaminated water will help prevent infection, however vaccination is strongly recommended.
Ten per cent of those that are infected can excrete the bacteria for up to three months and nearly half become long-term carriers.
Children under 12 months of age are not usually given the vaccine. Parents are strongly advised to observe standards of hygiene when travelling with young children to endemic areas.
Protective antibody cover falls over time and re-vaccination is necessary for continued protection. This is particularly important for people who have immigrated to the U.K. and plan to revisit their home country, India after many years.
Due to the limited protection offered by the vaccine, scrupulous attention to personal, food and water hygiene is emphasised to travellers.
Typherix®, Typhim Vi® is a combination vaccine with hepatitis A, for adults and for adolescents aged 15 years plus. If boosted within 6-12 months of the first dose, it gives immunity from Hepatitis A for ten years, and Typhoid for only three years.
Is second only to malaria among tropical diseases and is the third most prevalent parasitic disease in the world.
It is endemic in 76 countries 85% of infected people lived in sub-Saharan Africa.In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated for Schistosomiasis: 11.7 million treated were from sub-Saharan Africa.
Vaccination against TB lasts for 10-15 years after BCG immunisation of children. However there is no evidence it offers any further protection when given to adults and appears to be less effective.
BCG should be given to:
Immunisation is recommended for those under 35 years and going to live or work for more than three months with local people and there is a high rate of infected cases.
People at high risk of becoming very unwell with a compromised immune system i.e. HIV infection, sickle cell, type 1 diabetes, on chemotherapy medicines for cancer. Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, or have an ileostomy or colostomy, antibiotics are usually prescribed to prevent traveller's diarrhoea.
Antibiotics can have side-effects so it's best to avoid taking them if they are just being used for prevention.
It is spread by a bite from an infectedmosquito. The particular mosquito responsible bites during daylight hours and there are many in urban settings. It can also transmit dengue fever, chikungunya fever and yellow fever.There is also aslight risk of sexual transmission.
A link has been identified between infection during pregnancy and babies born with birth defects. There is no vaccine currently available against ZIKV.
50% DEET- based insect repellents should be applied regularly (according to the manufacturers' instructions).
For answers to commonly asked questions.
https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/zika/ NHS Choices Zika Virus:
Public Health England Leaflet - Health advice for women returning from areas with high or moderate risk of Zika virus transmission. (Updated February 2019).
Our website provides the latest information on vaccine requirement and additional medications for the rest of the world. Check out the rest of the pages on this site to learn about the vaccines needed and additional medicines required for destinations abroad and to other areas of interest. An excellent website recommended is the Fitfortravel NHS website where you can get the latest and comprehensive information to keep you safe.
All information has been licensed under the Open Government Licence. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/
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At Walk in Clinic, we provide convenient and affordable private gp services to patients. If you are staying, visiting or working in London, then our gp appointments can be conducted in person by walking in at the clinic.